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Substance Abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods neither approved nor supervised by medical professionals.

Use of these drugs may lead to criminal penalty in addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, both strongly depending on local jurisdiction.

List of Substance Abuse and their effects:
 

Tobacco

     • Nicotine: Found in cigarettes, cigars, bidis, and smokeless tobacco (snuff, spiting tobacco, chew).

Acute Effects - Increased blood pressure and heart rate.

Health Risks - Chronic lung disease; cardiovascular disease; stroke; cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, cervix, kidney, bladder, and acute myeloid leukemia; adverse pregnancy outcomes; addiction.

 

Alcohol

       • Ethyl alcohol: Found in liquor, beer, and wine.

Acute Effects - In low doses, euphoria, mild stimulation, relaxation, lowered inhibitions; in higher doses, drowsiness, slurred speech, nausea, emotional volatility, loss of coordination, visual distortions, impaired memory, sexual dysfunction, loss of consciousness.

Health Risks - Increased risk of injuries, violence, fetal damage (in pregnant women); depression; neurologic deficits; hypertension; liver and heart disease; addiction; fatal overdose.

 

Cannabinoids

     • Marijuana (Blunt, dope, ganja, grass, herb, joint, bud, Mary Jane, pot, reefer, green, trees, smoke, sinsemilla, skunk, weed).
     • Hashish (Boom, gangster, hash, hash oil, hemp).

Acute Effects - Euphoria; relaxation; slowed reaction time; distorted sensory perception; impaired balance and coordination; increased heart rate and appetite; impaired learning, memory; anxiety; panic attacks; psychosis.

Health Risks - Cough, frequent respiratory infections; possible mental health decline; addiction.

 

Opioids

     • Heroin (Diacetylmorphine: smack, horse, brown sugar, dope, H, junk, skag, skunk, white horse, China white; cheese (with OTC cold medicine and antihistamine).

     • Opium (Laudanum, paregoric: big O, black stuff, block, gum, and hop).

Acute Effects - Euphoria; drowsiness; impaired coordination; dizziness; confusion; nausea; sedation; feeling of heaviness in the body; slowed or arrested breathing.

Health Risks - Constipation; endocarditis; hepatitis; HIV; addiction; fatal overdose.

 

Stimulants

     • Amphetamine (Biphetamine, Dexedrine: bennies, black beauties, crosses, hearts, LA turnaround, speed, truck drivers, and uppers).

     • Methamphetamine (Desoxyn: meth, ice, crank, chalk, crystal, kante, fire, glass, go fast, speed).

     • Cocaine (Cocaine hydrochloride: blow, bump, C, candy, Charlie, coke, crack, flake, rock, snow, and toot).

Acute Effects - Increased heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, metabolism; feelings of exhilaration; increased energy, mental alertness; tremors; reduced appetite; irritability; anxiety; panic; paranoia; violent behavior; psychosis.

Health Risks - Weight loss, insomnia; cardiac or cardiovascular complications; stroke; seizures; addiction.

    Also, for cocaine – Nasal damage from snorting.

   • Also, for methamphetamine – Severe dental problems.

 

Club Drugs

     • MDMA (methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine; Ecstasy, Adam, clarity, Eve, lover's speed, peace, uppers).

     • Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol: forget-me pill, Mexican Valium, R2, roach, Roche, roofies, roofinol, rope, rophies).

     • GHB (Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: G, Georgia home boy, grievous bodily harm, liquid ecstasy, soap, scoop, goop, liquid X).

Acute Effects, for MDMA - Mild hallucinogenic effects; increased tactile sensitivity; empathic feelings; lowered inhibition; anxiety; chills; sweating; teeth clenching; muscle cramping.

Also, for Flunitrazepam - Sedation; muscle relaxation; confusion; memory loss; dizziness; impaired coordination.

Also, for GHB - Drowsiness; nausea; headache; disorientation; loss of coordination; memory loss.

Health Risks, for MDMA - Sleep disturbances; depression; impaired memory; hyperthermia; addiction.

Also, for Flunitrazepam – Addiction.

Also, for GHB - Unconsciousness; seizures; coma.

 

Dissociative Drugs

     • Ketamine (Ketalar SV: cat Valium, K, Special K, vitamin K).

     • PCP and analogs (Phencyclidine: angel dust, boat, hog, love boat, peace pill)

     • Salvia divinorum (Salvia, Shepherdess's Herb, Maria Pastora, magic mint,Sally-D).

     • Dextrometh-orphan (DXM) [Found in some cough and cold medications: Robotripping, Robo, Triple C].

Acute Effects - Feelings of being separate from one’s body and environment; impaired motor function.

Also, for ketamine - Analgesia; impaired memory; delirium; respiratory depression and arrest; death.

Also, for PCP and analogs - Analgesia; psychosis; aggression; violence; slurred speech; loss of coordination; hallucinations.

Also, for DXM - Euphoria; slurred speech; confusion; dizziness; distorted visual perceptions.

Health Risks - Anxiety; tremors; numbness; memory loss; nausea

 

Hallucinogens

     • LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide: acid, blotter, cubes, microdot yellow sunshine, blue heaven).

     • Mescaline (Buttons, cactus, mesc, peyote).

     • Psilocybin (Magic mushrooms, purple passion, shrooms, little smoke).

Acute Effects - Altered states of perception and feeling; hallucinations; nausea

Also, for LSD - Increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; loss of appetite; sweating; sleeplessness; numbness, dizziness, weakness, tremors; impulsive behavior; rapid shifts in emotion

Also, for Mescaline - Increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; loss of appetite; sweating; sleeplessness; numbness, dizziness, weakness, tremors; impulsive

behavior; rapid shifts in emotion

Also, for Psilocybin - Nervousness; paranoia; panic

Health Risks, for LSD - Flashbacks, Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder

 

Other Compounds

     • Anabolic steroids (Anadrol, Oxandrin, Durabolin, Depo-Testosterone, Equipoise: roids, juice, gym candy, pumpers).

     • Inhalants (Solvents (paint thinners, gasoline, glues); gases (butane, propane, aerosol propellants, nitrous oxide); nitrites (isoamyl, isobutyl, cyclohexyl): laughing gas, poppers, snappers, whippets).

Acute Effects, for Anabolic steroids - No intoxication effects

Also, for Inhalants (varies by chemical) - Stimulation; loss of inhibition; headache; nausea or vomiting; slurred speech; loss of motor coordination; wheezing

Health Risks, for Anabolic steroids - Hypertension; blood clotting and cholesterol changes; liver cysts; hostility and aggression; acne; in adolescents—premature stoppage of growth; in males—prostate cancer, reduced sperm production, shrunken testicles, breast enlargement; in females—menstrual irregularities, development of beard and other masculine characteristics

Also, for Inhalants - Cramps; muscle weakness; depression; memory impairment; damage to cardiovascular and nervous systems; unconsciousness; sudden death.

 

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment

More than three decades of scientific research show that treatment can help drug-addicted individuals stop drug use, avoid relapse and successfully recover their lives. Based on this research, 13 fundamental principles that characterize effective drug abuse treatment have been developed. These principles are detailed in NIDA's Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide. The guide also describes different types of science-based treatments and provides answers to commonly asked questions.

Source: Wikipedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Substance_abuse

National Institute on Drug Abuse; http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/commonly-abused-drugs/commonly-abused-drugs-chart